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Introduction

Communicating non-verbally involves visual cues (visual acuity), gestures (body language), paralanguage (intonation, pitch, speaking speed), oculesics (study of eye movement), chronemics (study of role of time in communication), haptics (communication through touch) and proxemics (study the use of space in communication). Non-verbal communication develops a social-emotional development from a childhood haptics, a non-verbal communication method that communicates through the sense of touch in humans and animals in the real world.

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Introduction

Great Man Theory or Great Man of Leadership Theory, was established on 19th century by Thomas Carlyle, Scottish Philosopher, Historian, Satirical Writer and Essayist. He was one among the significant social commentators of this time and has presented many lectures during his lifetime. Great Man Theory was born from the impact of great heroes and men, who were kings or personalities with wisdom and charisma, evolved in the 19th century when great men were considered as role models to the society. History of the world lies on the biographies of great men (Carlyle, 1888). The goal of humanity lies in its highest positions (Bishop 2004). Herbert Spencer in 1896 critics the great man theory as they are mere products of social environment and a society should make men before a man remakes it. Great men in histories are remembered forever as history recalls through generations. This theory is praised and criticized at the same time.

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Introduction

Adult learning theory or andragogy was established in Europe on 1950s for behavioural change and experience (Merriam et al 1999) and was developed as a theory on 1970s by an American practitioner and adult education theorist Malcolm Shepherd Knowles who believed that pedagogy, art and science helps the adult in learning process and related with their social role. The term “andragogy” was coined by a German educator, Alexander Kapp in 1833 to develop learning strategies in adult.

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