The Semantic barrier in communication can be defined as the misunderstanding and interpretation of meaning which restrict effective communication. It can be in form of language, sign and symbol. The word semantic is credited to the Greek word “semantikos” which indicates “significant”. Semantics is a broad interdisciplinary study which deals with philosophical and logical understanding behind the language. The Semantic barrier can be caused in every type of communication. The variations of meaning in language are visible between individuals in minor and cultures in major. Thus semantic barrier is an important element in communication theories at different levels. Differences in dialect, cultural differences, body language, and the choice of word, pronunciation differences and spelling errors are the main causes of a semantic barrier.
The Limited effects theory was proposed by Austrian–American sociologist Paul Lazarsfeld. The theory states that even if there is an effect created by the media on the thoughts and opinions of individuals; this effect is minimal at best or limited.
Communicating non-verbally involves visual cues (visual acuity), gestures (body language), paralanguage (intonation, pitch, speaking speed), oculesics (study of eye movement), chronemics (study of role of time in communication), haptics (communication through touch) and proxemics (study the use of space in communication). Non-verbal communication develops a social-emotional development from a childhood haptics, a non-verbal communication method that communicates through the sense of touch in humans and animals in the real world.
Great Man Theory or Great Man of Leadership Theory, was established on 19th century by Thomas Carlyle, Scottish Philosopher, Historian, Satirical Writer and Essayist. He was one among the significant social commentators of this time and has presented many lectures during his lifetime. Great Man Theory was born from the impact of great heroes and men, who were kings or personalities with wisdom and charisma, evolved in the 19th century when great men were considered as role models to the society. History of the world lies on the biographies of great men (Carlyle, 1888). The goal of humanity lies in its highest positions (Bishop 2004). Herbert Spencer in 1896 critics the great man theory as they are mere products of social environment and a society should make men before a man remakes it. Great men in histories are remembered forever as history recalls through generations. This theory is praised and criticized at the same time.