Stuart Hall developed reception theory, popularly known as Audience Theory or reader’s reception theory, in 1973. His essay ‘Encoding and Decoding Television Discourse’ focuses on the encoding and decoding of the content given to the audience no matter the form of media such as magazines/papers, television/radios, games. Today theorists who do the analysis of media through reception theory often derive results from the experience of an audience created by watching a cinema, game or books.
The Limited effects theory was proposed by Austrian–American sociologist Paul Lazarsfeld. The theory states that even if there is an effect created by the media on the thoughts and opinions of individuals; this effect is minimal at best or limited.
Communicating non-verbally involves visual cues (visual acuity), gestures (body language), paralanguage (intonation, pitch, speaking speed), oculesics (study of eye movement), chronemics (study of role of time in communication), haptics (communication through touch) and proxemics (study the use of space in communication). Non-verbal communication develops a social-emotional development from a childhood haptics, a non-verbal communication method that communicates through the sense of touch in humans and animals in the real world.