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The Johari Window Model


It is necessary to improve self-awareness and personal development among individuals when they are in a group. The ‘Johari’ window model is a convenient method used to achieve this task of understanding and enhancing communication between the members in a group. American psychologists Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham developed this model in 1955. The idea was derived as the upshot of the group dynamics in University of California and was later improved by Joseph Luft. The name ‘Johari’ came from joining their first two names. This model is also denoted as feedback/disclosure model of self-awareness.


The Johari window model is used to enhance the individual’s perception on others. This model is based on two ideas- trust can be acquired by revealing information about you to others and learning yourselves from their feedbacks. Each person is represented by the Johari model through four quadrants or window pane. Each four window panes signifies personal information, feelings, motivation and whether that information is known or unknown to oneself or others in four viewpoints.

The Johari Window Model

The method of conveying and accepting feedback is interpreted in this model. A Johari is represented as a common window with four panes. Two of these panes represent self and the other two represent the part unknown to self but to others. The information transfers from one pane to the other as the result of mutual trust which can be achieved through socializing and the feedback got from other members of the group.

1. Open/self-area or arena – Here the information about the person his attitudes, behaviour, emotions, feelings, skills and views will be known by the person as well as by others. This is mainly the area where all the communications occur and the larger the arena becomes the more effectual and dynamic the relationship will be. ‘Feedback solicitation’ is a process which occurs by understanding and listening to the feedback from another person. Through this way the open area can be increased horizontally decreasing the blind spot. The size of the arena can also be increased downwards and thus by reducing the hidden and unknown areas through revealing one’s feelings to other person.

2. Blind self or blind spot – Information about yourselves that others know in a group but you will be unaware of it. Others may interpret yourselves differently than you expect. The blind spot is reduced for an efficient communication through seeking feedback from others.

3. Hidden area or façade – Information that is known to you but will be kept unknown from others. This can be any personal information which you feel reluctant to reveal. This includes feelings, past experiences, fears, secrets etc. we keep some of our feelings and information as private as it affects the relationships and thus the hidden area must be reduced by moving the information to the open areas.

4. Unknown area – The Information which are unaware to yourselves as well as others. This includes the information, feelings, capabilities, talents etc. This can be due to traumatic past experiences or events which can be unknown for a lifetime. The person will be unaware till he discovers his hidden qualities and capabilities or through observation of others. Open communication is also an effective way to decrease the unknown area and thus to communicate effectively.


Linda got a job in an organization. Her co-workers knew a little about her and in this context the unknown and hidden areas will be larger and the open area will be small. As the others don’t know much about her the blind spot also will be smaller and the model will be as shown in Figure 1.

Linda spent most of her free time sketching in the office which was her preferred pastime and her co-workers found her very shy and elusive. With that evaluation she got the idea how she was and tried to be more talkative and interacted more with other co-workers. This helped her to increase her open area and thus making the hidden and unknown areas smaller. (Figure 2)

Through the feedback Linda got from her co-workers she could perform well in the office and her real capacity could be obtained as a result of an effective interaction among the colleagues.

{ 193 comments… add one }
  • Teklehaimanot December 7, 2022, 9:25 pm

    Very interesting. Thank you.

  • Baluku December 28, 2022, 9:10 am

    Would like to get more information about how to improve self awareness and how to understand others easily.

  • Chris January 3, 2023, 3:12 am

    Wow, this basically means if you really open up you become more predictable, less supicious, and therefore less condemned by others in what you do. If your reputation is a wise person, then you’re either good wise person or an evil wise person but when you lay bare all your faults and achievements the only thing they can form is that you’re just you, a wise person. The same with idiots.

  • Donald January 12, 2023, 3:48 pm

    Wowzers, amazing research, this really made my brain tingle 😉

  • Debra Sworn January 15, 2023, 4:14 am

    Awesome information, its tricky because now you may find yourself holding back and.or opening up too much in an effort to get others to fully understand you.

  • murungi wickliff January 18, 2023, 3:25 pm

    opening up is the best way to win trust and confidence amongst your peers

  • Victoria Mbithe January 23, 2023, 1:27 pm

    I love the explanation. Very simple and easy to understand!!

  • Baba Bukar Habib January 30, 2023, 3:30 am

    Learnt this during my undergraduate studies at Unimaid in 2003, but even the lecturer ciukdnt explain better. Or, I might not have understood him as I should.

    Very well explained. Thanks a lot.

  • Yonata January 30, 2023, 6:44 pm

    Fascinating topic,many thanks!

  • Jayshree Mitra February 1, 2023, 5:06 pm

    I’m glad you found the information helpful!

  • Cassandra J Sims February 12, 2023, 7:45 am

    Excellent information!

  • Kingsley February 23, 2023, 9:39 pm

    Well explained but I think interpersonal relationships with others will absolutely help people to conquer depression because I witnessed someone committing suicide due to the hidden arena is more effective than open arena.

  • Rebica deva February 27, 2023, 11:54 pm

    ! Because exam learning before one day ..help ful theory…

  • Wafula Beatrice Nasimiyu March 14, 2023, 12:01 pm

    An eye opener

  • mirix March 16, 2023, 3:51 am

    i find this quite fascinating, i really learnt alot here

  • Alyssa March 16, 2023, 4:59 am

    I have always known about this model since I was a youngster, whether that be directly or indirectly. Seeing everyone’s comments gives me a joy that I cannot fathom into words, but only emotions. I have always been a very nervous person, and I am hoping that the leaders of the world all know about this Johari Window… :/

  • Ernest kumwenda April 27, 2023, 12:50 am

    Well detailed information so far, I think these known self make ones weaker as they affect immotional

  • Orii solomon May 17, 2023, 9:53 pm

    You really made me know where I belong, keep it up

  • Njeri May 19, 2023, 1:13 pm

    I am a student and this was a very good explanation on Joharis window and the example really helped. Good read

  • Kulandai samy Christopher May 19, 2023, 2:19 pm

    Window model is simple, easy to understand and interesting learning which can be used in practical scenarios or situations.

  • Kulandai samy Christopher May 19, 2023, 2:21 pm

    Window model is simple, easy to understand which can be implemented in day-to-day life as well as in business.

  • Isabella May 21, 2023, 3:43 pm

    I’m an undergraduate, this information helped me understand better……thanks alot

  • Steven Billy May 31, 2023, 12:44 am

    As a teacher this is so helpful in creating a friendly environment, because students feel free to explain their experience in something after you (teacher) have.

  • Teresa Smith June 6, 2023, 8:42 pm

    This was a great example.

  • Brian June 12, 2023, 10:19 pm

    very interesting,thanks

  • Amani Nkilingi June 20, 2023, 5:07 pm

    I aknowledge and appreciate the usefulness of the model and nice explanation with simple and easy to understand example given. Congratulations

  • Aver Shiekuma Seth June 28, 2023, 3:03 pm

    Being an introvert will make you to be suspicious and the open self will be small while the hidden self + unknown self will be wide.

  • Abdullahi Sidi July 4, 2023, 7:06 pm

    A very good research indeed. I was taught about this weeks ago by Prof Umar Pate at FUK. He explained it in a much better way (maybe because he gave clearer examples). But I can’t remember everything and so I came here only to get such an amazing piece to save on my phone forever. Kudos!

  • Jhenfresh July 5, 2023, 8:54 pm

    Loved this reading

  • PAUL ONYANGO ONYISI July 12, 2023, 1:00 am

    Self-awareness is good for each individuals personal
    it should be promoted by all

  • Yongama Msindwana July 18, 2023, 12:42 am

    Great method indeed, very usefull.

  • CSM (R) August 3, 2023, 6:47 pm

    I learned this at the United States Army Sergeant’s Major Academy (USASMA) Class#63. Huh hah!!!!

  • Sheesh August 16, 2023, 5:58 pm

    understanding and enhancing communication between the members in a group. American psychologists Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham developed this model in 1955

  • Alex Simasiku September 6, 2023, 1:15 pm

    clear and straight forward

  • Hajara bubwa September 7, 2023, 2:37 pm

    Very interesting 100percent

  • Farayi Chidzungu November 13, 2023, 4:40 am

    Great illustration

  • jeff November 13, 2023, 9:33 pm

    I had this model presented as a student in a grad course. It had been trimmed down into quadrants sharing the pairings of the words consciously, unconsciously, skilled, and unskilled regarding the individual it applied.

    The beginning quadrant had the individual listed as unconsciously/unskilled. They didn’t know they were unskilled. They had not been taught yet. The final quadrant they were listed as unconsciously/skilled. They were so well trained/ experienced in the skill, they didn’t give it much thought anymore.

    I say all this, and should have in my class at the time…I was a manager in the school’s Library employing Workstudy students. I used this example with beginning student workers.

    I later noticed with the student workers as they were in that final quadrant, several (not all) had got so familiar/comfortable with their task, they got unconsciously sloppy/careless in their work tasks, so much so, you could not distinguish their work from the work of the beginning student worker in that first quadrant of unconciously/unskilled. They had rejoined that first quadrant. Lending itself to repeat the journey with them, by retraining the student worker back into consciousness.

    Thank you for your time.

  • Jaminee Mohan Boruah November 21, 2023, 9:23 am

    Well explained. Really Interesting one.

  • Wendy December 27, 2023, 9:08 pm

    I have been a student of this work for decades. My first exposure was an eye opener and has continued to gratify and challenge my growth and work. I incorporated this into a “feedback is a gift” exercise and changed the dynamics for some for what I know to be a lifetime. I am grateful.
    Please continue the great work, what the world needs now is more willingness to open windows!

  • Loredana Grillo January 25, 2024, 4:43 am


  • Blessing Mushonga April 14, 2024, 9:26 pm

    I have also noted that the Johari window can be applied to married couples who ought to pay particular attention to the unknown area such that they reduce it increasing the open arena.

  • Sisayb June 21, 2024, 8:59 pm

    This model is easy, understandable and helpful in to this world real life. Thank you you all for reflecting and reacting, all are useful. I learn a lot in it.

  • Ibtihal Alaloosi June 25, 2024, 8:43 pm

    I like this kind of program to analyze my self and others.

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