The Johari Window Model

in Communication Models,Group Communication


It is necessary to improve self-awareness and personal development among individuals when they are in a group. The ‘Johari’ window model is a convenient method used to achieve this task of understanding and enhancing communication between the members in a group. American psychologists Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham developed this model in 1955. The idea was derived as the upshot of the group dynamics in University of California and was later improved by Joseph Luft. The name ‘Johari’ came from joining their first two names. This model is also denoted as feedback/disclosure model of self-awareness.


The Johari window model is used to enhance the individual’s perception on others. This model is based on two ideas- trust can be acquired by revealing information about you to others and learning yourselves from their feedbacks. Each person is represented by the Johari model through four quadrants or window pane. Each four window panes signifies personal information, feelings, motivation and whether that information is known or unknown to oneself or others in four viewpoints.

The Johari Window Model

The method of conveying and accepting feedback is interpreted in this model. A Johari is represented as a common window with four panes. Two of these panes represent self and the other two represent the part unknown to self but to others. The information transfers from one pane to the other as the result of mutual trust which can be achieved through socializing and the feedback got from other members of the group.

1. Open/self-area or arena – Here the information about the person his attitudes, behaviour, emotions, feelings, skills and views will be known by the person as well as by others. This is mainly the area where all the communications occur and the larger the arena becomes the more effectual and dynamic the relationship will be. ‘Feedback solicitation’ is a process which occurs by understanding and listening to the feedback from another person. Through this way the open area can be increased horizontally decreasing the blind spot. The size of the arena can also be increased downwards and thus by reducing the hidden and unknown areas through revealing one’s feelings to other person.

2. Blind self or blind spot – Information about yourselves that others know in a group but you will be unaware of it. Others may interpret yourselves differently than you expect. The blind spot is reduced for an efficient communication through seeking feedback from others.

3. Hidden area or façade – Information that is known to you but will be kept unknown from others. This can be any personal information which you feel reluctant to reveal. This includes feelings, past experiences, fears, secrets etc. we keep some of our feelings and information as private as it affects the relationships and thus the hidden area must be reduced by moving the information to the open areas.

4. Unknown area – The Information which are unaware to yourselves as well as others. This includes the information, feelings, capabilities, talents etc. This can be due to traumatic past experiences or events which can be unknown for a lifetime. The person will be unaware till he discovers his hidden qualities and capabilities or through observation of others. Open communication is also an effective way to decrease the unknown area and thus to communicate effectively.


Linda got a job in an organization. Her co-workers knew a little about her and in this context the unknown and hidden areas will be larger and the open area will be small. As the others don’t know much about her the blind spot also will be smaller and the model will be as shown in Figure 1.

Linda spent most of her free time sketching in the office which was her preferred pastime and her co-workers found her very shy and elusive. With that evaluation she got the idea how she was and tried to be more talkative and interacted more with other co-workers. This helped her to increase her open area and thus making the hidden and unknown areas smaller. (Figure 2)

Through the feedback Linda got from her co-workers she could perform well in the office and her real capacity could be obtained as a result of an effective interaction among the colleagues.

{ 21 comments… read them below or add one }

Dr N.G.S.prasad February 21, 2013 at 3:40 pm


judith prager June 26, 2013 at 2:59 pm

simpl tool which can give many skilles

g r desai September 11, 2014 at 6:43 am

good material easy to follow

Alex innocent April 8, 2015 at 1:31 am

good idea

crystal x November 12, 2015 at 1:22 pm

Hi there, for all time i used to check website posts here early in the morning, as i like to find
out more and more.

Rich November 13, 2015 at 1:58 am

The Johari Window Model is a discussion I use as a facilitator for job readiness. It’s always an eye opener for the class participants and is filled with rich conversation. Clients learn to look at themselves in a way never before. The Blind Spot usually is one window that clients love to discuss. Not realizing your own issues could be very problematic on the job and that’s why feedback and is so important.

olivier November 25, 2015 at 2:13 pm

people should open up like linda did and she helped herself

Nat Cooper December 12, 2015 at 12:10 am

Excellent and intelligent.

Muhereza Edison February 23, 2016 at 9:28 pm

Very wonderful discussion and helpful to employees especially the newly recruited!

gaolatlhe boitshekelo March 31, 2016 at 2:01 pm

i want to know how all these panes helps in the communication process

Albert Bittok July 19, 2016 at 1:52 pm

Easily understood, good work.

komal jayswal July 19, 2016 at 3:19 pm

Effective material

Maria Belinda Lucero Redor July 30, 2016 at 2:20 pm

Useful tool for my Communication Theories and Model class. Thank you.

uche martins October 15, 2016 at 3:11 pm

The Johari window is really a good model to ensure efficiency and effectiveness at work place

Jackline February 7, 2017 at 6:22 pm

I want to know how johari window model helps in our interpersonal communication

stelly gidion March 5, 2017 at 8:45 am

It’s suitable for building teamwork (students, college students, teachers and so on) Thank to RELO U.S. Embassy Jakarta and UI who tought me Johari Window

Lili June 8, 2017 at 4:43 pm

I love this model, it helps to understand that feedback can be a positive thing and knowing how to 1. accept feedback and 2. make the positive changes will lead to positive outcomes. Being more self aware is one thing, but understanding the blind spot is just as important.

RAHUL GOEL August 18, 2017 at 9:54 am

Excellent and intelligent.

Maube B stephen January 5, 2018 at 5:52 pm

I love it because it has made understand that communication without feedback is not complete

Maube B stephen January 5, 2018 at 5:54 pm

Nice one with a clear lesson that communication is a process from sending, receiving and giving feedback

kain tz January 31, 2018 at 11:52 am

i lov it, well organized and easy to understand….

Leave a Comment

Previous post:

Next post: