In 1944 Paul Lazarsfeld, (1901-1976) an American Social Researcher, Bernard Berelson (1912 – 1979) and Hazel Gaudet was introduced The Two-Step Flow of Communication in the book called “The people’s choice: How the voter makes up his mind in a presidential campaign. New York: Columbia University Press”.

Theory Introduction:

The purpose of the study was focused on Presidential election Campaign and the people decision-making process towards the campaign. All three researchers were wanted to find out practically whether the mass media messages affect direct influence in voting decision among the people. Unexpectedly they found the media messages (like radio and newspapers) are very less influence then an informal, personal communication on voting behavior. Based on this researched data, The Two Step Flow Communication Theory of Mass Communication was developed by Katz and Paul Lazarsfeld.

Opinion Leader:

Opinion Leader is a leader for a certain group who gives details and information to lesser active persons in the group. In office, the managing director is an opinion leader and in public, a political leader is an opinion leader. They interpret the information to their own group. But one thing the Opinion leader is a leader only for their own group not for all.

In Public, Political leader is an opinion leader. Here few people are not influenced by the leader and their political views and thought. These people won’t support opinion leaders and isolated from the population.

Katz and Paul seems “the flow of media messages from radio and print to opinion leaders and then the leaders leads the messages to lesser active users in the population”. Through this transformation of message, the leaders may add their opinion on the actual content which may affects the low active users. In some cases the Opinion leaders are filtering the actual content ensures the information is needed by the people. Mostly the opinion leaders are selective and they pass the messages to the group.  (Low-end media users: Poor, Worker and People who are not affordable for getting information directly).

Note: The Opinion leaders have enough voice only in structured social groups not in an isolated individual in the population.


Carol watching News in ANB Channel they flash the headlines with “Research reveals some toys are leads the children’s aggressive and Violent”. That day Carol calls her little son and went for shopping and carol warn her son some toys are not good and made skin allergy which leads her son to avoid those toys.

  • Opinion leader: Mom
  • Audience: Her Son
  • Added information in actual content: Skin Allergy


-Researchers found substantial evidence that initial mass media information flows directly to people on the whole and is not relayed by opinion leaders.

-The two-step hypothesis does not adequately describe the flow of learning. Lazarsfeld and his associates in the 1940 election study were unable to determine the specific flow of influence.

– Today most of the advertising researches are based on this theory. Especially opinion leaders role in the society as well as in home to which helps to improve the market with less efforts.

{ 25 comments… read them below or add one }

Annika Larson July 25, 2012 at 1:55 pm

This has some random capitalization

M Amin Mashal April 25, 2013 at 11:51 am

its outstanding article and too easy but if will be more better if more in detail any how i understand the theory which will help me in the exam . and the more i shall search . Thank You sir

bhagyashree May 26, 2013 at 10:14 am

It is really very good and helpful…,

neel tonmoy August 1, 2013 at 3:42 am

very easy to understand…most reliable answer
thanks to help.

Thandokazi Ngemntu October 25, 2013 at 2:09 pm

Please summrise the concept of this theory,advantages and disadvantages and examples

ogunfuyi ololade January 8, 2014 at 5:05 pm

It is helpful and easy to understand, thanks.

Maliha April 21, 2014 at 1:46 pm

very easy for capture.

unabatsho peter May 21, 2014 at 1:51 pm

nice one simple and i get the idea it will help me by the way i know people who are opinions leader even when its not applicable

Hridwan Rizvi November 1, 2014 at 8:21 am

It was a helpful article.

moses njuguna November 1, 2014 at 3:23 pm

i like this article, its simple to understand.

sameer December 4, 2014 at 8:10 pm

please give a simplified version of two step theory as that will help me in my exams

SHAMIMA AHASANA January 16, 2015 at 4:31 pm

its good.but i think its not enough for exams…

Scovian Lilian February 10, 2015 at 3:11 pm

Kindly please add up advantages and disadvantages but the theory is well and easily simplified.Kudos

philip mboya March 26, 2015 at 1:45 pm

good job.am good to go

tm the great April 17, 2015 at 11:41 pm

well explained stuff

jatin guta November 19, 2015 at 9:48 pm

you are magnificent

Ehsanullah March 12, 2016 at 8:26 pm

Supportive note for students

Sakala d April 2, 2016 at 3:21 am

Thanks ,a useful simplified text

E frank T July 5, 2016 at 5:59 am

Well simplified and easy to understand but pls the advantages and disadvantages

Bonath Nov August 18, 2016 at 8:51 am

it is very useful for me, great thank for writer

Ranita Sarkar September 17, 2016 at 4:31 pm

its a very useful.. thks a lot

Frederick LGS October 12, 2016 at 8:17 pm

I was struggling to remember the theory name, despite remembering the concept. Through sheer luck and the miracle of google, I found your site and rediscover this theory name. I must say, having found this website triggered my nerdgasm! I found many of the theories I love, and see many other I haven’t heard. Thank you for making this website! -Fred

overson mtembenuzeni November 5, 2016 at 5:30 am

Thanks you. You have helped me with my assignment

Ranjan kumar April 5, 2017 at 2:40 pm

Very simple and very easy to understand..

Abinash Azad November 2, 2017 at 12:56 am

One of good ethic point has been mentioned here with suitable examples which not only helps a communication scholar but also in an informative perception it creates nice view of study.

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