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In 1944 Paul Lazarsfeld, (1901-1976) an American Social Researcher, Bernard Berelson (1912 – 1979) and Hazel Gaudet was introduced The Two-Step Flow of Communication in the book called “The people’s choice: How the voter makes up his mind in a presidential campaign. New York: Columbia University Press”.

Theory Introduction:

The purpose of the study was focused on Presidential election Campaign and the people decision-making process towards the campaign. All three researchers were wanted to find out practically whether the mass media messages affect direct influence in voting decision among the people. Unexpectedly they found the media messages (like radio and newspapers) are very less influence then an informal, personal communication on voting behavior. Based on this researched data, The Two Step Flow Communication Theory of Mass Communication was developed by Katz and Paul Lazarsfeld.

Opinion Leader:

Opinion Leader is a leader for a certain group who gives details and information to lesser active persons in the group. In office, the managing director is an opinion leader and in public, a political leader is an opinion leader. They interpret the information to their own group. But one thing the Opinion leader is a leader only for their own group not for all.

In Public, Political leader is an opinion leader. Here few people are not influenced by the leader and their political views and thought. These people won’t support opinion leaders and isolated from the population.

Katz and Paul seems “the flow of media messages from radio and print to opinion leaders and then the leaders leads the messages to lesser active users in the population”. Through this transformation of message, the leaders may add their opinion on the actual content which may affects the low active users. In some cases the Opinion leaders are filtering the actual content ensures the information is needed by the people. Mostly the opinion leaders are selective and they pass the messages to the group.  (Low-end media users: Poor, Worker and People who are not affordable for getting information directly).

Note: The Opinion leaders have enough voice only in structured social groups not in an isolated individual in the population.


Carol watching News in ANB Channel they flash the headlines with “Research reveals some toys are leads the children’s aggressive and Violent”. That day Carol calls her little son and went for shopping and carol warn her son some toys are not good and made skin allergy which leads her son to avoid those toys.

  • Opinion leader: Mom
  • Audience: Her Son
  • Added information in actual content: Skin Allergy


-Researchers found substantial evidence that initial mass media information flows directly to people on the whole and is not relayed by opinion leaders.

-The two-step hypothesis does not adequately describe the flow of learning. Lazarsfeld and his associates in the 1940 election study were unable to determine the specific flow of influence.

– Today most of the advertising researches are based on this theory. Especially opinion leaders role in the society as well as in home to which helps to improve the market with less efforts.

{ 41 comments… add one }
  • Annika Larson July 25, 2012, 1:55 pm

    This has some random capitalization

  • M Amin Mashal April 25, 2013, 11:51 am

    its outstanding article and too easy but if will be more better if more in detail any how i understand the theory which will help me in the exam . and the more i shall search . Thank You sir

  • bhagyashree May 26, 2013, 10:14 am

    It is really very good and helpful…,

  • neel tonmoy August 1, 2013, 3:42 am

    very easy to understand…most reliable answer
    thanks to help.

  • Thandokazi Ngemntu October 25, 2013, 2:09 pm

    Please summrise the concept of this theory,advantages and disadvantages and examples

  • ogunfuyi ololade January 8, 2014, 5:05 pm

    It is helpful and easy to understand, thanks.

  • Maliha April 21, 2014, 1:46 pm

    very easy for capture.

  • unabatsho peter May 21, 2014, 1:51 pm

    nice one simple and i get the idea it will help me by the way i know people who are opinions leader even when its not applicable

  • Hridwan Rizvi November 1, 2014, 8:21 am

    It was a helpful article.

  • moses njuguna November 1, 2014, 3:23 pm

    i like this article, its simple to understand.

  • sameer December 4, 2014, 8:10 pm

    please give a simplified version of two step theory as that will help me in my exams

  • SHAMIMA AHASANA January 16, 2015, 4:31 pm

    its good.but i think its not enough for exams…

  • Scovian Lilian February 10, 2015, 3:11 pm

    Kindly please add up advantages and disadvantages but the theory is well and easily simplified.Kudos

  • philip mboya March 26, 2015, 1:45 pm

    good job.am good to go

  • tm the great April 17, 2015, 11:41 pm

    well explained stuff

  • jatin guta November 19, 2015, 9:48 pm

    you are magnificent

  • Ehsanullah March 12, 2016, 8:26 pm

    Supportive note for students

  • Sakala d April 2, 2016, 3:21 am

    Thanks ,a useful simplified text

  • E frank T July 5, 2016, 5:59 am

    Well simplified and easy to understand but pls the advantages and disadvantages

  • Bonath Nov August 18, 2016, 8:51 am

    it is very useful for me, great thank for writer

  • Ranita Sarkar September 17, 2016, 4:31 pm

    its a very useful.. thks a lot

  • Frederick LGS October 12, 2016, 8:17 pm

    I was struggling to remember the theory name, despite remembering the concept. Through sheer luck and the miracle of google, I found your site and rediscover this theory name. I must say, having found this website triggered my nerdgasm! I found many of the theories I love, and see many other I haven’t heard. Thank you for making this website! -Fred

  • overson mtembenuzeni November 5, 2016, 5:30 am

    Thanks you. You have helped me with my assignment

  • Ranjan kumar April 5, 2017, 2:40 pm

    Very simple and very easy to understand..

  • Abinash Azad November 2, 2017, 12:56 am

    One of good ethic point has been mentioned here with suitable examples which not only helps a communication scholar but also in an informative perception it creates nice view of study.

  • Kamran June 28, 2018, 1:27 pm

    Really was helpful in understanding the theory

  • Mohamed Sahr April 8, 2019, 6:44 pm

    A super outstanding concept and very easy to comprehend hereon.

  • Mohamed Sahr April 8, 2019, 6:45 pm

    A super outstanding theory and it’s very easy to comprehend.

  • Mudasser Ahmad Tahir April 28, 2019, 9:01 pm

    This is very easy and easy to understand. Thank you giving clearly concept about Two Step Flow Theory.

  • wilfred May 18, 2019, 11:49 pm

    thank you for assistance

  • kiptoo June 4, 2019, 5:09 pm

    nice explanation

  • Enoch Hosea June 28, 2019, 3:27 am

    thank for this work I love it I now assimilate how some leader are very simple I enjoy it

  • Vishal October 3, 2019, 11:21 am

    Its very good and easy content.

  • Ansar Ahmad December 21, 2019, 11:42 am

    The article is purely based on research which is too effective for the students of Journalism and Mass Communication to studied and get maximum marks in exam.

  • Zaheer Hassan Panhwar August 23, 2020, 10:59 am

    Very useful knowledge

  • MAN October 4, 2020, 2:57 am

    This is good, me personally can understand this theory easily.

  • KURAYE KATSINA February 12, 2021, 12:56 am

    Good article, but need more so that we can we write during exam

  • TIMOTHY NSUBUGA April 28, 2021, 12:27 am


  • Brenda Tume December 15, 2021, 4:12 pm

    This is just awesome

  • Abdulrazak abdulrauf January 16, 2022, 11:25 am

    A very good write up

  • Mohammed Yazi May 10, 2024, 10:14 pm

    very sharp!
    It was really helpful to read this article.
    Thank you and keep writing articles.

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