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The berlo’s model follows the smcr model this model is not specific to any particular communication.

Berlo’s model lives a number of factors under each of the elements :

Source: The source is were the message originates.

Communication skills – It is the individual’s skill to communicate (ability to read, write, speak, listen etc…)

Attitudes – The attitude towards the audience, subject and towards one self for e.g. for the student the attitude is to learn more and for teachers wants to help teach.

Knowledge– The knowledge about the subject one is going to communicate for e.g. whatever the teacher communicates in the class about the subject so having knowledge in what you are communicating.

Note: It is not talking about the general knowledge it is all about the knowledge of the subject, so it is the familiarity of what you are communicating.

Social system – The Social system includes the various aspects in society like values, beliefs, culture, religion and general understanding of society. It is were the communication takes place.

For e.g. class room differs from country to country like behaviors, how we communicate etc.

Note: We can communicate only to the extent that the social system allows, when we communicate take social system into account.

Culture: Culture of the particular society also comes under social system.

All to this model, only if you have the above in the proper or adequate proportion v can communicate.

Encoder: The sender of the message (message originates) is referred as encoder, so the  source is encoding the message here.


Content – The beginning to the end of a message comprises its content for e.g.  From beginning to end whatever the class teacher speaks in the class is the content of the message.

Elements – It includes various things like language, gestures, body language etc, so these are all the elements of the particular message. Content is accompanied by some elements.

Treatment – It refers to the packing of the message. The way in which the message is conveyed or the way in which the message is passed on or deliver it.

Note: When it is too much treatment also the communication will not happen properly.

Structure– The structure of the message how it is arranged, the way you structure the message into various parts.

Note: Message is the same but if the structure is not properly arranged then the message will not get to the receiver.

Code– The code of the message means how it is sent in what form it could be e.g. language, body language, gestures, music and even culture is a code. Through this you get/give the message or through which the communication takes place or being reached.

Note:  Only when the code is proper, the message will be clear, improper use may lead to misinterpretation.

Channel–   It is nothing but the five senses through this only we do. The following are the five  senses which we use

  • Hearing
  • Seeing
  • Touching
  • Smelling
  • Tasting

Whatever communication we do it is there either of these channels.

Hearing: The use of ears to get the message for e.g. oral messages, interpersonal etc.

Seeing: Visual channels for e.g. TV can be seen and the message is delivered.

Touching: The sense of touch can be used as a channel to communicate for e.g. we touch and buy food, hugging etc.

Smelling: Smell also can be a channel to communicate for e.g. perfumes, food, charred smell communicates something is burning, we can find out about which food is being cooked etc.

Tasting : The tongue also can be used to decipher e.g. Food can be tasted and communication can happen.

Note: Despite not mentioning a medium we need to assume that as communication is taking place channels can be any of the 5 senses or combination.

Decoder : Who receives the message and decodes it is referred to as decoder.

Receiver: The receiver needs to have all the thinks like the source.

This model believes that for an effective communication to take place the source and the receiver needs to be in the same level, only if the source and receiver are on the same level communication will happen or take place properly. So source and receiver should be similar

For e.g. Communication skills on source side is good then the receiver should equally have good listening skills.

We cannot say the entire message passed doesn’t reaches the receiver has it is because the receiver may not good in listening, so only for the effective communication the source and the receiver to be in the same level.

Note: Self image differs from person to person, for communicating the person should consider the receiver. Keep the receiver in mind, speak accordingly and give them what they need.

Criticism of berlo’s smcr model of communication:

  1. No feedback / don’t know about the effect
  2. Does not mention barriers to communication
  3. No room for noise
  4. Complex model
  5. It is a linear model of communication
  6. Needs people to be on same level for communication to occur but not true in real life
  7. Main drawback of the model is that the model omits the usage of sixth sense as a channel which is actually a gift to the human beings (thinking, understanding, analyzing etc).
{ 165 comments… add one }
  • Derick Malinzi November 9, 2016, 2:41 pm

    Its so interesting…….. goo job.

  • Yusuph Amon June 1, 2017, 1:33 pm

    I like it more,,,thank so much keep it up!!!?

  • Ali H.Forughi July 14, 2017, 1:05 pm

    useful explanations,helped me very much.thanks a lot.

  • maingi munyasya October 18, 2017, 12:32 pm

    work done well

  • Sally November 29, 2017, 2:34 am


  • Muhammad Mashhood December 29, 2017, 10:39 pm

    Very Good!
    You write very well and categorized the Berlo’s SMCR Model. I read it and learned many things from it.

  • Tasnim Al Hasan March 29, 2018, 10:30 pm

    Usable explanation,thanks.

  • Outstanding April 8, 2018, 6:05 pm

    So nice,its a good research information

  • Angelajeoniie June 20, 2018, 6:30 pm

    Very wise and friendly explination.
    Thanks!!! Helped me a lot!!

  • Aurangzeb Ansari October 22, 2018, 11:07 am

    Very deficult theory for revision

  • Chloe January 24, 2019, 5:25 pm

    Very informative and easy to understand.

  • DOMINIC MUTUKU February 21, 2019, 6:03 pm

    good work… infact the ideas are easy to capture keep it up

  • NOBERT WERE March 12, 2019, 7:25 pm

    difficult model to understand compared to the other models but good job all the same.

  • Mitra Bahadur Karki March 14, 2019, 10:58 am

    what are the advantages of this model

  • Isuru Sampath June 12, 2019, 3:37 pm

    This lesson very useful for my studies, thank you very much

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